Modern architecture should be carefully considered at the design stage both from a constructive and engineering point of view, taking into account all climatic conditions of the area. Only by predicting and modeling all factors, undesirable processes can be prevented during construction and operation. Which is the key to a safe, comfortable, and functional building?
Atmospheric conditions have a huge impact on the design of buildings and their structures. That is why the project should always be developed taking into account all the climate peculiarities of different regions. The most important elements of this group of factors are indicators of temperature, humidity, intensity and direction of the wind, precipitation: rain and snow, as well as the level of solar radiation. Each element can have a significant impact on the building and its inhabitants.
In cold areas, the following construction techniques are used:
- reducing the perimeter of the external walls;
- planning the inner living spaces and economic structures as compactly as possible;
- connecting the housing construction facilities with closed warm passages;
- equipping special entryways at the entrances;
- applying energy-efficient materials and technologies (multilayer windows, thermal insulation, etc.)
In hot areas, special construction techniques are also used, it is recommended to provide:
- mandatory air conditioning in residential premises;
- intensive ventilation of the house;
- vertical landscaping of the facades;
- arrangement of artificial reservoirs on the land plot.
It is very important that the enclosing structures of the house interfere with long-term heat transfer.
Wind and Rain
Wind mode is of great importance in the design of buildings. That is why the designers always use information about the “wind rose”. In practice, knowledge of the “rose of the winds” leads to the fact that a design engineer can provide larger windows on the side of the house that is more often leeward. This is due to the fact that high-pressure areas are created on the opposite side; therefore, it is necessary to confine to small windows and ventilation openings.
The mode of precipitation (snow and rain) directly affects the choice of design solutions that are associated with the roof. It is necessary to use special snow guard devices that prevent the snow mass from falling from the roof (which can be a great danger for residents of the house). Rain mode also affects the choice of roofing, as well as engineering systems. In normal and wet areas for the normal functioning of a residential house, it is necessary to use drainage systems.